Go directly to our online catalogue. Purchase Send feedback. Reviews "For instructors, students, and general readers looking for a sound, balanced, and accessible general history of the U. McMahon, Ohio State University "In this concise and illuminating book, Peter Hahn provides a wonderful historical backdrop that helps us to understand our present challenges in Iraq. Containment of Iraq in the s Chapter 6: George W.
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War in Iraq | National Archives
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Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. Relevant web site addresses are sprinkled throughout and are provided for readers who seek a greater depth of understanding than this short outline alone provides. The ancient civilizations of Sumer and Babylon originated in Mesopotamia the Greek word for "between rivers" , near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq. Modern day Kuwait began in the eighteenth century as a small village on the Persian Gulf.
Throughout the nineteenth century and up to World War I, Kuwait was a "Qadha," a district within the Basra Province, and it was an integral part of Iraq under the administrative rule of the Ottoman Empire. In order to weaken Arab nationalism, Britain blocked Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf by severing the territorial entity, "Kuwait" from the rest of Iraq in and This new British colony, Kuwait, was given artificial boundaries with no basis in history or geography.
King Faisal I of the new Iraqi state ruled under British military oversight, but his administration never accepted the amputation of the Kuwait district and the denial of Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf.
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Attempts by Faisal to build a railway to Kuwait and port facilities on the Gulf were vetoed by Britain. These and other similar British colonial policies made Kuwait a focus of the Arab national movement in Iraq, and a symbol of Iraqi humiliation at the hands of the British. Resistance to the British imposed separation of Kuwait from Iraq continued through the s. In , the British Agent in Baghdad forced the Iraqi leadership to enter into "correspondence" on the delimitation of boundaries for British Kuwait, but the Iraqi Chamber of Deputies repudiated these "correspondences.
Fearing an uprising, the Kuwaiti Sheik agreed to the establishment of a legislative council to represent the "Free Kuwaitis. The new state of Israel became an important instrument for U. With the U. In the U.
The Baghdad Pact was widely perceived in the Arab world as alliance of regimes subordinate to British and U. Nuri es-Said responded to the protests by jailing opposition leaders who demanded that Iraq withdraw from the pact.
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However, he also began secret negotiations with the U. For two years, appeals for the return of Kuwait to Iraq intensified. All pact members agreed with the proposal, with the sole exception of Britain. Further diplomatic gestures from Iraq to Britain were rebuffed, and finally Iraq informed Britain that it was preparing documents and copies of secret understandings together with a formal memorandum, to be published before the world in July The British Ambassador responded to the Iraqi government that Great Britain had "approved in principle" the unification of Kuwait and Iraq, but requested a meeting in London with the Iraqi and British Prime Ministers and other government officials.
But this meeting never took place, because the Iraqi monarchy was overthrown on July 14, in a revolution led by General Abdel Karim Qassim. News of the coup triggered an uprising of the poor and dispossessed in Baghdad.
The crowds attacked the British embassy and other targets. The U. The new government lifted the ban on the Iraqi Communist Party, and that modest step toward democracy in turn mobilized the U. Central Intelligence Agency. One failed assassination attempt in this context was made by Saddam Hussein.
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Qassim continued to alienate the U. Qassim held a press conference on June 19, at which he declared that "Iraq regards Kuwait as an integral part of its territory. Kuwait gained admission to the United Nations in , the same year that Qassim was killed and his government overthrown in a CIA supported coup led by the Baath Party. What followed was a slaughter of the left, including the murder and torture of Iraqi Communist Party members and trade unionists. Throughout the s, Iraq offered compromises to Kuwait's rulers that would enable Iraq to gain access to its former islands in the Gulf.
But no agreements were reached, and the floating border separating the two countries crept northward.
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He reportedly uncovered a conspiracy against his government with the result that twenty-one high government and Baath Party officials were executed. The armed forces and the Baath Party were purged and there were widespread arrests. A short time later, in August a general amnesty was announced that resulted in the release of Kurdish prisoners, members of the Iraqi Communist Party, and others. However, Amnesty International reported continual human rights abuses from that period.
Saddam Hussein was guaranteed financial backing in the form of loans from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and other nations. These visits paved the way for the normalization of relations between the U. Iraq had been removed from the U.